《东城》

作者:艺术资讯

《东庄图》之东城

  在赵宋四大家中,米芾与苏轼、黄庭坚、蔡襄有所不同,是一个很特别的人。宋代文献《云烟过眼录》卷下及《志雅堂杂钞》卷上均记载米芾有一方火正后人芾印的书画印,可惜未能存迹于世。正是这方印文表明米芾有一个很怪的号:火正后人,才让有心人对他进行了饶有兴趣地研究,于是就有人提出米芾是西域人后裔,但由于缺乏能考证米芾祖籍的直接材料,长久以来未能得到普遍的认同。笔者有幸在新疆工作过几年,也很是有兴趣地翻读了许多史料与有关历代笔记,以为米芾为西域人后裔。

  火正后人,后人多不解其意。这是否是米芾借早先汉民族政权中五行官之一的火正之称谓(古之火正,谓火官也,掌祭火星行火政。《汉书五行志》)对西域先人所崇拜的宗教袄教(亦称:拜火教)的怀念。因为李唐初时的大食国(阿拉伯帝国)灭掉波斯后,逐渐占有了包括米国在内的整个中亚细亚,于是中亚袄教徒们纷纷或改教或沿着丝绸之路往东方迁移,想必米芾的祖先也迁移到了中土。历史发展到了宋代时,西域的袄教已被伊斯兰教所代取,在中土的袄教徒也已基本消失了。火正后人的号是否是米蒂对故乡和祖先宗教的一种怀念呢?

  米芾好洁,洗手时,唤奴仆用长柄斗泻水洗手并以两手相拍至干,从不用巾拭,这种洗手方法至今流传于西域。据说他任太常博士时,有一次朝靴不小心被他人拿错,便恶心般地屡洗不罢,结果将朝靴洗坏了而不能穿。为好洁他还被上所贬斥,因为他将在重要场合穿的祭服上的图案洗的模糊不清了。还有趣的是他出门坐轿,因高檐帽被轿顶所碍,宁愿撤去轿顶盖而露帽而坐,也不愿将高檐帽交与跟班持拿恐为其污。别人求观他的书画时,他总是先洗手后展画,并要求客人不要动手,也不要以衣拂之。他这类爱清洁的故事与袄教徒的好洁习惯相吻合。

  其实米芾还好冠服效唐人,而唐人衣冠时尚效胡服。事实上米芾不仅仅是经常不合时宜地身着胡服,更重要的是否他有西域后裔之相貌而引起许多人聚而观之。西域人长相特点是深目、高鼻、多髯。有学者认为:从明王折辑的《三才图会》中的米芾画像(图一)看,证明他确是深目、高鼻、多发。恰巧藏书中有《三才图会》,(但我曾翻阅过他的画像)翻之一看,可笔者却不以为然。

  赵宋及以降的文献中对米芾的书画,尤其是对其书法特点和理论多有记述:豪放而神锋险峻歌倾狂怪怒张之势极矣,这是否与他的西域基因所形成的气质与性格有着密切的关系呢?不仅如此,有时还有神秘的地方,有一本叫《宾退录》的宋代文献文中,记载米芾说过一段很稀奇的事情:吾梦古衣冠人授以摺纸书书法,自此差近,写与他人都不晓。有趣的是米芾多次书写过《天马赋》,据有的学者考证,他至少重复书写四本(次)以上。这是为什么?天马出自西域,由天马想到故乡米国,可以说也是情理之中的事。

  前些日子再读斯文赫定的《亚洲腹地旅行记》时,看到他在发掘袄教徒的墓葬时说:平坦的墓穴。马上联想到明末一本文献《海岳志林》,其中亲穴一章中说:米喜欢奇怪的事物,他将他的一个亲人葬在润州(今江苏镇江)山间,没有树木覆盖,曾像人们夸耀,没有人知道这是墓穴。这种无墓碑而不聚土为坟的葬亲的礼法,是否很象斯文赫定的所说的平坦的墓穴一般。如今在西域出土的墓穴均为平坦的墓穴而且确实没有人知道这是墓穴。

  还是回到《海岳志林》,在举拂一章引用同时代的文献《香乘》说:米芾临死之前,面对同事,举拂示众日(说)众香国中来,众香国中去。掷拂,合掌而逝。美国有位学者写过一本关于唐朝泊来品的专著《撒马尔汗的金桃》,其中有一章是专门写香料的,历史上异磬奇香大都来自西域。明代文献《博物志》中有这么一个故事:汉武帝时,弱水西国有人献大如燕卵的香三枚,后逢长安大疫,官中皆疫病,满京惶然。献香西使乞见请焚所供香一枚。病者闻香立愈,长安远近百里咸闻香气芳积,历时三月,香犹不息。西域所贡奇香故事,为历朝历代所乐道,所谓的众香国,其实就是指西域。

  宋代有部《清波杂志》的文献,记载这么一件事,文中说:米芾向蔡攸求王羲之的一幅字,对方不愿意,便说:如果不愿,我就投江然后就大叫着摇摆船身,蔡攸只能给了他。米芾(常使一些小伎俩向他人求得宝贝),这种把戏与米国人长期以商贾为职业的善于美言、喜欢收藏珍宝的性格很相像。据说米芾凡见名书古画,总要以多种招数巧取而占为已有。如:米芾精临摹,他曾从他人处借得古画,临摹后又将真、赝本一同归还,使其自择而莫辨。据说他就是用这种方法巧取了许多古画。

  米芾的这些西域人的诸多特点是否可以表明:米芾是西域人的后裔吗?

  

  Dong Cheng

  What I think, feel and act during the creating process

  Among the Four Masters of Song Dynasty, Mi Fu was very different from the other three. According to the documents of Song Dynasty, the famous scholar Mi Fu had a seal called Huo Zheng Hou Ren (Lit. the descents of Huo Zheng). Huo Zheng was one of the original authorities of Han Nation, which took charge of the fire. Yet the ancestors of the western region (Central Asia) worshiped fire. Thus therere guesses coming to being that Mi Fu was the descents of West regions. Actually we can find a lot of evidences to prove the guess.

  First of all, Mi Fu was obsessed about tidiness. If anyone would love to see his art works, he would wash his hand first and never allowed anyone to touch his pieces. This obsession on cleanness actually matches the customs of the west region.

  Secondly, Mi had a preference of wearing Hu (West) clothing instead of wearing robe of Song Dynasty.

  Thirdly, Mi Fu was famous for his bold and unconstrained artistic style. So would it come out of his gene of western region? Mi Fu had handwritten Tian Ma Poem several times. Tian Ma came from the western region, so maybe the copy was a way he used to express his longing for home.

  Fourthly, Mi Fu was fascinated with strange customs. Once he buried his dead relative on the mountain of Run Zhou (in Jiangsu Province) and refused to cover it with trees and grasses. He even told his friends proudly that no one would ever know it was a tomb. This unique burying custom indeed matches the western Flat Tomb tradition.

  Moreover, Mi Fu liked to use some tricks to ask for treasures from his friends. This also matches with the West region experts of negotiation and fancy in collecting treasures. For example, Mi was good at copying art pieces. Once he borrowed one piece from his friend, he copied one version, gave both to his friend and asked him to choose the original one. In the end, Mi Fu got the art piece.

  To sum up, can all these behavior evidence prove that Mi Fu was the descents of west region?

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